The bid-ask spread is the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay (the bid price) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept (the ask price) for a particular security. In other words, it is the difference between the buy and sell price of a security. The bid-ask spread is expressed in terms of a price, and it can be calculated by subtracting the ask price from the bid price.

For example, suppose the current bid price for a stock is \$50, and the ask price is \$51. The bid-ask spread for this stock is \$1 (\$51 – \$50).

The bid-ask spread works by matching buyers and sellers in a market. When a buyer wants to purchase a security, they place a bid at a specific price that they are willing to pay. On the other hand, when a seller wants to sell a security, they place an ask at a specific price that they are willing to accept.

The bid-ask spread is determined by the supply and demand for a particular security. If there are more buyers than sellers, the bid price will increase, and the ask price will decrease, resulting in a narrower bid-ask spread. Conversely, if there are more sellers than buyers, the bid price will decrease, and the ask price will increase, resulting in a wider bid-ask spread.

For example, suppose a trader buys 100 shares of a stock at a current ask price of \$51. If the bid price for the same stock is \$50, the trader pays a bid-ask spread of \$1 per share. Therefore, the total cost of the trade would be \$5,100 (\$51 x 100 shares).

In addition to affecting the profitability of trades, the bid-ask spread also reflects the liquidity of a security. A security with a narrow bid-ask spread is considered more liquid than a security with a wide bid-ask spread because there are more buyers and sellers in the market, and it is easier to buy and sell the security at a fair price.

There are several ways to minimize the impact of the bid-ask spread in trading. One way is to use limit orders instead of market orders. A limit order is an order to buy or sell a security at a specific price or better. By using a limit order, a trader can specify the exact price they are willing to pay or receive for a security, which can help reduce the bid-ask spread.

Finally, traders can also minimize the impact of the bid- ask spread by using a broker that offers low trading fees and commissions. High trading fees and commissions can increase the overall cost of trading, making it more difficult for traders to achieve profitability.

### Sections Included in a Shareholders’ Agreement

A shareholders’ agreement is a legally binding document that outlines the rights and obligations of the shareholders of a company. The agreement is usually entered into by the founding shareholders of a company and can be amended as the company grows and new shareholders are added. Some of the key sections included in a shareholders’ agreement are:

1. Shareholder Rights and Obligations: This section outlines the rights and obligations of each shareholder, including their voting rights, how shares can be transferred, and how the company will be managed.
2. Dividends and Distributions: This section outlines how profits will be distributed among the shareholders, including how and when dividends will be paid.
3. Shareholder Deadlock: This section outlines how the company will resolve a situation where there is a deadlock between the shareholders, such as when they cannot agree on a major decision.
4. Dispute Resolution: This section outlines how disputes between shareholders will be resolved, including whether arbitration or mediation will be used.
5. Shareholder Buyouts: This section outlines the procedures for buying out a shareholder’s shares in the company, including the valuation of the shares and the payment terms.

### Example of a Shareholders’ Agreement

Let’s say that two founders, Alice and Bob, start a company called ABC Inc. Alice invests \$100,000 and Bob invests \$50,000 in the company. They decide to enter into a shareholders’ agreement to outline their rights and obligations as shareholders. Here are some of the key sections of the agreement:

1. Shareholder Rights and Obligations: Alice and Bob each have 50% ownership of the company and have equal voting rights. They agree that they will not transfer or sell their shares without the other’s consent.
2. Dividends and Distributions: Alice and Bob agree that the company will not pay dividends until it is profitable. Once the company is profitable, profits will be distributed equally among the shareholders.
3. Shareholder Deadlock: If Alice and Bob cannot agree on a major decision, they agree to seek the advice of a neutral third party. If they still cannot reach an agreement, they agree to sell the company and split the proceeds equally.
4. Dispute Resolution: If a dispute arises between Alice and Bob, they agree to try to resolve it through mediation. If mediation fails, they agree to arbitration.
5. Shareholder Buyouts: If Alice or Bob wants to sell their shares, they must first offer them to the other shareholder at fair market value. If the other shareholder declines to purchase the shares, they can be sold to a third party.

### Conclusion

In conclusion, a shareholders’ agreement is an important legal document that outlines the rights and obligations of the shareholders of a company. It helps to prevent disputes between shareholders and provides a framework for resolving conflicts if they arise. Some of the key sections of a shareholders’ agreement include shareholder rights and obligations, dividends and distributions, shareholder deadlock, dispute resolution, and shareholder buyouts. Founders of a company should consider entering into a shareholders’ agreement to ensure that everyone is on the same page and to prevent misunderstandings or disputes in the future.