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Climate Change Causes Disappearance of Tasmanian Tiger In Mainland Australia

A study conducted by researchers from Adelaide University said climate change was the main cause of the extinction of thylacines, known as Tasmanian Tiger, some 4,000 years ago. The results help explain the mysterious disappearance of the meat-eating marsupial from mainland Australia but survived in Tasmania.

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Adelaide, Australia (4E) – A team of researchers from the University of Adelaide has traced the mysterious disappearance of Tasmanian Tiger from mainland Australia to climate change that happened about 4,000 years ago.

The Tasmanian Tiger, thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), is a meat-eating marsupial. About of the same size and shape of medium- or large-sized dog, it has stripes on its back similar to that of the tiger and an abdominal pouch in both sexes.

“Thylacines once lived across most of the Australian mainland, but by the time Europeans arrived in the late 1700s they were found only in Tasmania,” lead researcher Dr. Jeremy Austin said.

The thylacines became extinct “about 150 years later, with the last of the species dying in Hobart Zoo in 1936.”

The disappearance of the Tasmanian Tiger from mainland Australia but continued to survive in Tasmania had baffled scientists for years.

Austin said a number of reasons that caused their disappearance include climate change, increased human activity, and dingo’s introduction.

Austin, joined by several other researchers from the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, used the technique that uses the 51 thylacine mitrochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequences generated from the fossil bones and museum specimens to determine the cause or causes of the extinction.

Ph.D. student and first author of the study Lauren White said the objective of the study was “to understand why thylacines went extinct on the mainland but survived in Tasmania.”

Based on the genetic evidence, the researchers found out the thylacines were concentrated into two groups, the eastern and western groups, some 25,000 years ago or the Last Ice Age Peak. The western group was larger and more diverse than the known Tasmanian population, the study published in the Journal of Biogeography said.

The western group, according to the researchers, had remained in Western Australia until their extinction from the mainland some 3,000 years ago.

The mtDNA samples, Austin said, had revealed a narrative of the rapid disappearance of thylacines during the period. Other factors such as inbreeding or loss of genetic diversity were ruled out as the likely cause.

The researchers had established a pattern of population crash of thylacines in Tasmania at the time of the mass and the rapid disappearance of thylacines in the western region.

“Climate change from about 4,000 years ago, in particular, more drought-prone seasons caused by the onset of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), was the like main cause,” Austin said.

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Environment

Fight vs Climate Change Given Teeth with New Rules

The rules that will implement the 2015 Paris Agreement have been approved by nearly 200 countries following a contentious and sometimes rowdy series of meetings in Katowice, Poland.

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Arthur J. Villasanta – Fourth Estate Contributor

Katowice, Poland (4E) – The rules that will implement the 2015 Paris Agreement have been approved by nearly 200 countries following a contentious and sometimes rowdy series of meetings in Katowice, Poland.

United Nations’ member countries party to the 2018 United Nations Climate Change Conference will implement the new rules in 2020. The new rules are detailed in a 156-page rulebook broken down into themes. These themes include how countries will report and monitor their national pledges to curb greenhouse gas (GhG) emissions and update their emissions plans.

The 2018 United Nations Climate Change Conference is the 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP24). It’s informally known as the Katowice Climate Change Conference and was held from Dec. 2 to 15. It was held to give flesh to the Paris Agreement.

The Paris Agreement’s long-term goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels. It also seeks to limit the increase to 1.5°C since this level will greatly reduce the risks and effects of climate change.

Proponents of the new rules consider them a good foundation for countries to go about implementing the Paris Agreement.

“It is not easy to find agreement on a deal so specific and technical,” said Michal Kurtyka, the Polish president of the talks. “Through this package you have made a thousand little steps forward together. You can feel proud.”

Before the Katowice talks began, many expected the deal might not be as robust as it needed to be. The unity palpable at the Paris talks has weakened, mainly due to Trump’s ignorant opposition to the existence of climate change and global warming.

One of the talk’s leaders complained about the fact countries had to be dragged kicking and screaming to the finish line. He said this shows that some nations — especially Trump’s America — have not woken up to the urgent call of the report by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

The IPCC in October warned that keeping the Earth’s temperature rise to 1.5C will need “unprecedented changes” in every aspect of society.

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Environment

Largest Known Diamond in North America Unearthed in Canada

The largest diamond ever discovered in North America — a gem weighing-in at 552 carats – was recently unearthed in Canada.

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Arthur J. Villasanta – Fourth Estate Contributor

Northwest Territorries, Canada (4E) – The largest diamond ever discovered in North America — a gem weighing-in at 552 carats – was recently unearthed in Canada.

Canadian mining company Dominion Diamond Mines said the yellow diamond was unearthed in October at the Diavik Diamond Mine located in Northern Canada about 135 miles south of the Arctic Circle.

This still unnamed diamond, which is about the size of a chicken egg, is the seventh-biggest this century. Dominion Diamond Mines called the gemstone “astonishing.”

The company said abrasion markings on the surface of the 552 carat gemstone attest to the difficult journey it underwent during recovery, and the fact that it remains intact is remarkable.

Dominion CEO Shane Durgin said the diamond is gem quality. This means the gemstone is suitable for jewelry.

Since it’s still being evaluated, this diamond’s ultimate worth hasn’t been determined. It will not be sold in its rough form and will be polished to ramp-up its value.

The 552 carat gem is almost three times the size of the Diavik Foxfire, which is next largest stone ever found in Canada. Diavik Foxfire is a 187.7 carat gem-quality diamond unearthed in the same mine by the Rio Tinto Group.

it was later turned into a pair of yellow earrings, which sold for more than $1.5 million. That stone is about one-third the weight of this new diamond.

Yellow stones typically sell at a discount to Type IIa top whites often found in the best African mines. The highest quality fancy vivid yellow or fancy intense yellow stones can sell for a premium.

In 2015, a 1,111 carat diamond was discovered at a mine in Botswana. The size of a human palm, it came second to only the 3,106 carat Cullinan diamond, which was found in 1905 in South Africa.

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Environment

Warming Arctic Imperils our Planet, Says NOAA

The Arctic has been warmer for the past five years than at any other time since 1900 when records began being kept, and this doesn’t bode well for the future, says a report from the U.S. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

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Washington, DC, United States (4E) – The Arctic has been warmer for the past five years than at any other time since 1900 when records began being kept, and this doesn’t bode well for the future, says a report from the U.S. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

The “2018 Arctic Report Card” from NOAA reveals the Arctic had its second-hottest year on record in 2018. This spike is part of an inexorable warming trend that stands to dramatically change the Earth’s weather patterns in coming years.

The NOAA report said 2018 was second only to 2016 in overall warmth in the Arctic. The report also revealed the Arctic experienced its second warmest air temperatures and second lowest sea-ice coverage last year.

More worryingly, polar temperatures are increasing at double the global average rate. This massive jump is causing unexpected changes in the global environment being experienced today.

The rapid Arctic warming is the most unprecedented transition in human history, said Dr Emily Osborne, who led the report. Dr Osborne said these momentous changes are impacting Arctic residents and have the potential to affect people well beyond the region.

She pointed out that in the 13 years that NOAA has been publishing these reports, the warming trend has continued to increase in severity.

The rising atmospheric warmth in the Arctic causes a sluggish and unusual jet-stream that coincides with abnormal weather events, said the report. It said the changing patterns have often brought unusually frigid temperatures to areas south of the Arctic Circle.

Some examples are the swarm of severe winter storms in the eastern United States in 2018. There’s also the frigid outbreak in Europe in March 2018 better known as the Beast from the East.

Environmentalists have long warned against dangers posed by the rapid warming in the Arctic. This unnatural warmth also threatens imperiled species like polar bears, and is a precursor of the broader impacts of climate change on the Earth.

In addition, scientists have warned the Arctic will suffer trillions of dollars worth of climate change-related damage to infrastructure over the coming decades.

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